Coronavirus Effect on Global Warming and Global Warming Impact on Pandemic Risks

Coronavirus Effect on Global Warming and Global Warming Impact on Pandemic Risks: Part 1 of 3 // Feb 28, 2020

The Coronavirus has shuttered about 25% of Chinese industrial production for weeks on end. Since Chinese production and industrial activist accounts for about 1/4 of global production, 1/4 x 1/4 = 1/16 or about 6% of global production has been halted. Thus, my back of the envelope best guess has global CO2 emissions down about 6%, and globally produced aerosols down about 6% as well.

Since global dimming from aerosols is thought to be between 0.25 to 1.1 C, if we take the 1 C number as an upper limit, then the Coronavirus has resulted in global warming of about 0.06 C; with regional warming over China of about 0.25 C.
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Coronavirus and Climate Change: Intimate Connections: Part 2 of 3 // Feb 28, 2020

It is well known that as our planet rapidly warms, there are more disease vectors that affect human health. Diseases such as Zika Virus, West Nile Disease, Ebola, Malaria, etc. propagate faster and more severely in warmer regions.

Looking at history, when Europeans went to warmer lands of long established civilizations (Incas, Aztecs, and Mayans) it was their diseases that wiped out these Indigenous populations. Immune systems of higher latitude nations (Europeans) were stronger than those of people in lower latitude regions, the latter had no immunity to diseases the invaders inadvertently brought in.
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Habitat Stress Forcing Poleward Animal Migration Increases Risk of New Virus Generation: Part 3 of 3 // Feb 28, 2020

It is thought that the coronavirus originated in Wuhan’s wild animal market, perhaps moving first from bats to a small mammal and then to humans. We know that as the globe rapidly warms, many animal species are forced to migrate towards the poles in search of more optimal habitats as their existing regions become too warm and dry to continue to sustain them.

This migration causes these animals to interact more with other species, and become more stressed, weakening their immune systems and increasing the probability of them becoming virus carriers and propagators.

Ref:  ^DJI, aka Dow or “Dow Jones Industrial Average“.

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Skating with the Wolves (and Ranting about Climate Coronavirus Connections) // Mar 1, 2020

Nothing beats an early morning vigorous skate through the Quebec snow covered forests with the wolves. The ice was perfectly flat and nearly pristine along this 3 km loop in the woods at Lac-des-Loups, and the path was almost deserted. Essentially, this was the perfect place for me to film a rant video while skating, to summarize some of the key connections between abrupt climate system change and the Coronavirus, and vice-versa.

It is very clear to me that climate change increases the risk of viral and bacterial disease outbreaks around the planet, and when these outbreaks are large enough to become global pandemics they significantly affect climate. If you like my videos, please donate at and Thanks for Watching!!
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Skating Seven Miles Through the Beautiful Winter Forest in Lac-des-Loups (Lake of Wolves) Quebec!) // Mar 1, 2020

Last video focused on the connections between abrupt climate system change and the connections to the coronavirus. Some people rightly complained that as I skated in a beautiful forest landscape in Quebec they just saw my face and not enough of the scenery; this video is for those people.


Here I focus on the skating path and the wonderful snow laden trees bordering the path as I navigate through the forest. As I post this video, I am resting from my hour long skate covering over 7 miles (12 km), which is 4 complete loops) through the forest , according to my Garmin Fenix watch, which tells me everything about my body; in fact more than anybody would ever want to know!!

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Please consider donating to support my work.  I put a lot of time and effort into researching, studying and producing my videos so that you can learn how quickly our world is changing.  Donating does not need a PayPal account, but simply a credit card. Please click here.
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About paulbeckwith

Well known climate science educator; Part-time Geography professor (climatology, oceanography, environmental issues), University of Ottawa. Physicist. Engineer. Master's Degree in Science in Laser Optics, Bachelors of Engineering, in Engineering Physics. Won Association of Professional Engineers of Ontario gold medal. Also interested in investment and start-ups in climate solutions, renewable energy and energy efficiency. Avid chess player, and likes restoring old homes. Married with children.
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2 Responses to Coronavirus Effect on Global Warming and Global Warming Impact on Pandemic Risks

  1. Starting about 51/2 minutes into your video, “Coronavirus Effect on Global Warming and Warming Effects on Pandemic Risks, Part I,” you state that people in very warm and tropic climates are not as immunologically strong as people who hail from more northern climates.
    I’ve watched enough of your videos over the years to recognize that outside your area of expertise, the physics of climate change, you are, well, without being too offensive I’ll simply say naïve. But you’ve never impressed me, before at least, as bigoted. I’m offering you a corrective. You see (likely you actually don’t), immunities are biologically congealed cultural facts. Read the following. There’s two pieces, both quite short (the first one dates from April 2009; the second is very recent) and some notes that follow.

    A/H1N1, Pandemic Disease and Capital. Some Remarks
    Contrary to the characteristic argument put forth in virological accounts of all sorts, viral, and especially influenza, disease is not coextensive with the human condition.
    As is universally recognized (without understanding its significance), viral infections are products of the circle of human-domesticated animal interactions. Thus, for example, the common cold (a coronavirus) has been derived from human relations with horses; smallpox from cattle; chickenpox from chickens; measles from pigs; and influenza from chickens, ducks and pigs.
    There is an entire epoch of human “history” that predated the rise of agriculture and civilization (some 100,000 years following the emergence of anatomically modern human beings) characterized by a form of sociation (nomadic hunting) in which viral disease played no role. Beyond this still another form of sociation (sedentary hunting-gathering) has co-existed with and survived down until the advent of capitalist modernity (in socially isolated pockets that stood outside tributary statist formations, landlordism-based forms of sociation and still later capitalist societies) in which viral disease also played no role.
    These, those communities without states, without agriculture in the formal sense, lacking in material inequality and lacking even in the rudiments of the hierarchical relations of command and obedience that push social development down the path of coercive political Power (i.e., statify those relations), did not labor and did not by and large humanize wild animals (i.e., domesticate them for food, for work, etc.).
    Accordingly, these communities never developed the biological immunities that, like disease outbreaks of epidemic proportions, are also products of the circle of human-domestic animal interaction.
    Proof, as it were, of this assertion can be seen in the sixteen and seventeen centuries epidemic sweeps over the course of a half century in which whole native populations in the Americas were destroyed due to epidemics of smallpox, measles, etc., whereas in Europe, the same diseases did not destroy the demographic integrity of population groups, killing “only” on average no more than seven percent (7%) of Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, and English populations:
    The very diseases that destroyed the demographic integrity of native populations were not immutable biological facts. The genetically transmitted physiological immunities of settler colonists to common diseases such as smallpox in particular but also to measles, dysentery, mumps, whopping cough, chickenpox, etc., as well as the diseases themselves, were the product of millennia of the enforced impoverishment starting from Europe’s rural masses. Those immunities were constituted over thousands of years as peasants lived in closed, close and shared quarters with their livestock, primarily cattle, pigs, sheep, goats and chickens. If cows or lambs provided warmth as peasants slept among or on them, or human mothers wet nursed infant motherless animals, it was because savage inequalities produced a situation in which one family had a cow and some chickens, while another had herds of cattle or sheep, for example, that numbered in the tens or hundreds of thousands. Rooted in millennia of rigid social stratification and class division, disease grounded devastation was a culturally formed phenomenon: It was the immunologically congealed expression of the internal barbarity and criminality of class societies themselves…
    Viral, and bacterial, disease has emerged anew, i.e., in qualitatively more resistant, medically baffling and epidemic and pandemic forms, at the end of the twentieth century. This emergence of infectious disease and rapid spread is almost entirely the product of two developments within capitalism.
    First, grounded in the industrial emissions-induced warming of the Earth, it flows from the spread of tropical and semi-tropic climate regimes northward and southward. As a result, viruses, some vary ancient (millions of years old), that were once confined strictly to these regions spread also, particularly on the back of capitalist commerce where not just the movement of goods but people (including tourists) is understood as commerce (e.g., West Nile, malaria).
    Second, infectious disease is the result of decadence in the common sense of the term (compulsive, mega-wealth pursuit among financial and rentier groups, signature and individualized fantasy housing among the well-to-do middle strata in metropolitan centers). For example, the bacterium known as Lyme disease has likely existed in the United States a long time without, until recently, becoming epidemic. The disease is carried by the deer tick. A warming climate (itself product of two hundred years of capitalist based, industrial pollution) and an increase in deer, together in those areas where precipitation has also increased, have multiplied its number. In the metropolitan centers of contemporary capitalism, always suburban, hothouse economic growth often obtains. In these areas, the increase in deer is particularly notable in a man-nature landscape which is sought after by the well-to-do middle strata, a landscape formed and contoured by real estate developers: Fragmented forests, i.e., open tracts having land interspersed with strands of trees, provide more sunlight than a contiguous forest, and the additional light promotes leafy growth, thus providing browse for deer. With the deer come the ticks. In the autumn they drop off the deer. Mice and chipmunks provide the mobility that the otherwise largely immobile tick lacks. These rodents find ideal conditions for weathering the winter in the woodpiles and stone fences that the well-to-do create alongside and surrounding their homes, a feature no doubt of the romantically and unconsciously anti-capitalist ambiance they seek. Bringing in wood for those cold winter evenings when a fire is the order of the day, the ticks attach themselves to humans. The result has been a startling rise in the incidence of Lyme disease…
    The appearance of a virulent swine flu virus (A/N1H1) in, it seems, Mexico City and its immediate environs is not a spectacular diversion from the various modalities of the crisis of capital, but instead is itself an integral feature of that crisis understood as a crisis of capitalist civilization as such.
    The only surprise about this lethal influenza virus is that its main genetic components derive from pigs, not birds. Wild waterfowl form the natural reservoir of avian influenza. Having existed, likely, for millennia among ducks, this influenza has until recently had no harmful effects upon wild birds.
    But, driven by capitalist imperatives, the mass production of “meat,” in particularly chicken, has seen the generalization of the American Tyson firm’s model of industrialized poultry production throughout the capitalist world, beyond the United States especially in China and Thailand.
    In all these sites, the massing of birds (exacerbated by attempts to stem transmission of disease among them) has multiplied, by orders of magnitude, the opportunities for HN viruses to mutate. Enter A/H5N1, which in its current mutated form has become deadly to wild waterfowl as well (e.g., swans), and is now sweeping across the world (Asia, Europe, Africa, soon the Americas) following the seasonal lines of wild bird migrations.
    Capitalist poultry production practices have (i) allowed avian viral diseases to spread rapidly, (ii) to mutate exponentially, and (iii) made the diseases endemic, i.e., ineradicable, in birds. The same can be said of pigs, the only difference being that whereas in an industrial poultry farm that operates outside Little Rock or Shanghai literally a million or more chickens are confined to tight, enclosed quarters, the industrial hog farms as they operate along, say, the Minnesota River on the edge of the U.S. northern plains confine tens of thousands of pigs, given the difference in size and body weight, to an equally restricted immediate environment.
    In the pursuit of capital accumulation by way of a greatly enlarged worldwide markets for meat consumption (chicken, beef, pork), the scientific management of poultry and livestock based on principles of industrialized production is generating a qualitative amplification of the incident and scope of disease by massing literally thousands or millions of mammals or birds, respectively, in tightly enclosed quarters (birds on the Tyson model) where naturally occurring disease can run, uninhibited, through these populations at frighteningly rapid speeds creating virally mutating highly pathogenic, potentially pandemic viruses. At the same time, industrialized methods of slaughter, in particular the organized massed animal murder on high speed, highly rationalized assembly line operations guarantees that unsanitary nature of the “product” through transmission of blood and feces in gutting, butchering and carving, thereby giving rise to life threatening strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, salmonella, listeria, etc.)…
    There are, minimally, five conditions for constitution of a pandemic disease.
    First, the virus must be transmittable among human beings. Second, the virus must be new, a mutation of existing viral forms to secure for it inadequate immunities within its host or their absence altogether. Third, not only must this novelty be something that is not easily combated by the host immune system, it must be capable of sufficiently weakening that system to render the host susceptible to other serious disease… in humans perhaps must commonly pneumonia. In other words, it must be deadly. Fourth, it must be capable of easy, rapid transmission within the host species. Fifth, the trajectory of the disease must be, at least until it reaches a point of generalization within the population grouping of its host, in the direction of increased virulence as it spreads. (Pandemic disease runs in two possible directions, not just one. It is a common misunderstanding to believe that it always abates, simply running its course in a line of increasing “benignity.”)
    The last major human outbreaks of avian influenza consisted in A/H5N1 which first appeared in East China, Vietnam and Cambodia in early 2006 (if not before) and A/H1N1 in Mexico City in March 2009. The latter is by far the more dangerous.
    In 854 new cases of pneumonia of indeterminate origin officially registered in Mexico City hospitals as of 26 April 2009, assuming these were genuinely cases of pneumonia), what was most disturbing is that a large majority of the deaths attributable to the disease (20 with certainty, 61 suspected) have been deaths of otherwise, young healthy individuals. Access to information on the ages of these individuals is hard to come by, but our relatively informed guess would put these victims nearly all at ages between 14 and 30. That is ominous: Human influenza as a rule strikes the elderly and the very young, i.e., those whose immune systems are either weakened by aging or not fully developed. (On average, 36,000 people, heavily weighted to the side of the elderly and the very young, die each year as a consequence of contracting human influenza in the United States alone.)… What is ominous is, first, that swine influenza, with its descent traceable back to the 1918 influenza pandemic (H1N1/1918) has been remarkably stable in the genetic sense up to, say, the 1997 Hong Kong influenza outbreak, but has become much more unstable, unhinged by potential for rapid genetic mutation given with the generalization, we believe, of the industrialized slaughter of massed chickens and pigs on a grand scale… What is ominous, second, in the truly, if to our knowledge historically rare, virulent forms of influenza, is that an otherwise healthy young adult population is in the main the victim of contact with the virus. This is because the virus, incubating at an exceedingly quick pace like the 2007 Mexico City swine influenza, is able to work itself in the depth of the lungs, the epithelial cells of the alveoli (tiny sacs that “hold” oxygen “won” in respiration) before the human immune system can adequately counter its presence. The immunological response is inflammation (as in a fever), which releases a unique white blood cell, a protein called a “cytokine” among which “killer T cells” are numbered, cells that take aim at the body’s own cells when virally infected. The capillaries that surround the alveoli (oxygen molecules seep through the latter to the former, returning to the heart from which oxygenated blood carried by the arteries is pumped throughout the body) carry killer white blood cells to the points of great lung depth. Dilating, the capillaries decant the killer white cells, antibodies and other immunological elements including enzymes that in the process destroy the varying capillaries that have carried them. As blood fills the lung, the body starts making a connective, fiber-ish tissue. The lungs become congested with this tissue, capillary residue, cell debris, as well as the various attack cells, the exchange of oxygen cannot take place… Essentially, one drowns in one’s own blood. Only the strongest of immune systems, those of an otherwise healthy youthful population can mount this type of immunological defense, called a “cytokine storm,” in which, starting from a virulent viral infection, the immune system effectively kills the personage of which it is physiologically part.
    The problem with the designation, “pneumonia,” is that it is not a specific disease, but a general characterization of several different types of inflammation of the lungs…
    The classical locus, though not unique, from which our understanding of the truly virulent, deadly viral infection derives was the 1918 influenza pandemic. While it is still moot as to whether it had its origins in the trenches of the Western Front, in the U.S. Army hospitals of Kansas or elsewhere, it is indisputable that the massing of already ill, future victims in highly confined, unsanitary conditions was perhaps the crucial element for development of a rapidly evolving virus, and for its extraordinarily rapid spread.
    In this specific respect, the barrios, shantytowns, ghettos and slums of the great metropolises of the world today… which are the institutional and built environmental forms in which a fundamental tendency of capitalist development today is realized, the ongoing, growing expulsion of labor from production simultaneous with incorporation of strata “outside” the waged labor-capital relation… are the precise historical counterparts to those conditions as they existed in the trenches and hospitals of the first imperialist world war: Viral diseases are today every much diseases of congested, destitute living as tuberculosis, typhoid fever or cholera.
    The crowded, impoverished conditions of daily life that likewise tend toward the unsanitary as they exist in these slums, here Mexico City, reproduced a second time ideal conditions for pathogenic mutation. Like the structures housing industrialized mass animal death, products of the global movement of capital these slums are laboratory experiments on the fast track of the evolution of highly pathogenic, potentially pandemic viruses.

    Wuhan Coronavirus and Global Pandemic, Capital and Bourgeois Desire
    Dating from the first infections of 8-9 December 2019 in Wuhan, China, COVID-19 signified not just the appearance of a novel coronavirus but a qualitative transformation of the human-animal relation. This, for three reasons:
    First, the virus is vastly more virulent (i.e., spreads far more rapidly) than any other severe, viral respiratory infection which has appeared in modern times. Where the extensive deployment of state force to round up infected individuals (hospitalize them and impose a general quarantine on entire infected regions) is lacking (e.g., China in the first 5-6 weeks of its spread, Iran, Italy and, still undetermined but likely the United States), the rate of disease transmission ranges from an order of magnitude increase every twenty days to a doubling every four and a half days.*
    Second, the dead toll far exceeds any other coronavirus. Though the mortality rate is not as high as SARS (9.6% of roughly 8,100 cases of infection), and certainly not as high as MERS (36% of roughly 900 infected individuals), overall COVID-19 is far more deadly. In the first two months of transmission, the mortality rate was about 2.4%. However, as Chinese state authorities’ use of compulsion has limited rapid spread beyond Hubei Province, as some twenty other countries have reported infections (with epicenters in the Italian Lombard plain, an unreported center in Iran, and the United States northwest and metropolitan New York City), and the global total of infections well over 100,000 (as of 5 March 2020), the rate of infection is climbing, now at 3.4% having felled over 3,400 individuals.
    It is likely to exceed those of recent influenza epidemics: The repression necessary to control spread (as deployed in China and Iran) is not, for reasons of historical practice and ruling class hegemonic concerns, currently available while public health infrastructures are tattered in the private capitalist nations of North America and Europe. In most of Africa and the Spanish (and Portuguese) speaking Americas, the same public health infrastructure, where it exists at all, will be unable to cope with a major outbreak of the virus. COVID-19 is effectively a global pandemic: It will not seasonally abate; and less China, Vietnam and Thailand which have exhibited the political will and capacity, and have in place the public health infrastructures, to manage the viral crisis, COVID-19 will wash over the world again and again (say, over the next three years) until some sort of at least partial immunities form (epidemiological experts in Hong Kong and London expect it will reach 60% of the global population before that occurs), and it is transformed into a permanent but manageable disease (like smallpox, like mumps), or, alternatively, a partially effective vaccine is produced.
    Third, like other contemporary coronaviruses (SARS, MERS) COVID-19 starts from bats to which it is endemic, infects a mammal and further jumps the species barrier to human. Like SARS (the mammalian carrier of which is a civets), and unlike MERS (which is carried by a camel), COVID-19 is carried by a pangolin, that is, by a mammal which falls outside the circle of human-domesticated animal relations.
    The palm civet and pangolin are “wild” or “feral” animals, which, like numerous similarly bird species, badgers, squirrels, deer, beaver, snakes, rats, wolf cubs and even (imported) koalas, are kept live and caged for on-site slaughter and sale. The Wuhan Seafood Market, ground zero for COVID-19 at its origins, offered some 112 lives animals (and animal “products”) for the Chinese palate. The Chinese immensely prefer fresh kill to frozen meat; they prefer freshly murdered swine, chicken and beef to the similarly murdered chilled or frozen then shipped forms of the same animal life. In Wuhan, bat soup (with the bat recently killed, and simply gutted but otherwise fully present in the soup) is a popular delicacy. In the wild animal markets, the lack of on-site sanitary facilities and the killing and gutting with the accompanying blood, intestines and feces virtually guarantee initial disease transmission from animal to human.
    State-driven, China lifted itself out of its repressive landlord agrarian past in a quarter century. Yet the marks of the old regime remain: Refrigeration, though common in a newer dwellings in the large urban centers, is unlikely to be found outside them or, for that matter, in the homes and apartments of the overwhelming majority of proletarians and village farm families. Buying perishable food for daily use still prevails, and a certain preference, taste if you will, for fresh kill is constitutive of the mentalité across classes in China. It is considered better, proper and human (i.e., Han). Organic features of some animals, it is believed, enhance sexual potency (the rhinoceros horn reduced to powder, for instance), others it is similarly believed have medicinal value (pangolin scales are alleged to promote blood circulation, stimulate lactation, and disperse swelling). The same culturally diffuse awareness, moreover, regards animals as food, tools and “things” people can do with as they please. To boot, live animal markets are a socializing setting. Laws, more recent ones with very stiff penalties, have long been in effect banning wild animal markets. These are as likely to be legislated away as are guns in the United States. In other words, not at all.
    But the issue goes deeper.
    Prosaically, the search for markets, and dialectically and concretely, the pressure of the “law” of value embodied in and driving the commodification of nature, as exploitable “natural resources” is wreaking havoc, vastly upping, disease transmittability: Habitat destruction, transforming forests, wet lands and other aspects of the Earth hitherto not subject to human remaking (i.e., increasing commodification of nature) into monocultural crop land, into roads and highways, and into zones for construction of industrial, commercial and residential structures may well have crossed a line, driven down the ecological niche and milieu thresholds so low that, statist interventions notwithstanding, these natural setting no longer can provide their own immanent barriers (their sheer density and relative inaccessibility, microbial viral predators) to transmission. Even the wildest subsistence species are being corralled, and sucked up into capital’s market expansion of exotic meat. These include beavers, alligators and crocodiles, porcupines and bats. Witness the civet and the officially recognized as endangered pangolin in China, and chimpanzees, bonobos and mountain gorillas killed as “bushmeat” in Central Africa. Tropical forests, again in Central Africa, the Amazon, the Indonesian archipelago and New Guinea are clear-cut or burned for monocultural crop (largely palm and soybean) agriculture for commodity export to the capitalist metropolises (North America, European, Japan and China) as ingredients in countless processed foods (palm) or to feed cattle and swine (soybeans). Site by site, region by region and species by species, the Earth is plundered and denuded (in the sea as well as on land, one only need think of longlining and gillnetting). In bourgeois and capitalist terms, the “value” of the “residue” has actually risen. Heavily armed with modern weaponry, organized poaching gangs scours those residue regions for the exotic as simultaneously large agriculture capitals, tree cutting timber outfits and giant food firms carve up what’s left, moonscaping forests (clear-cutting by way of gigantic tractors that, chains affixed to tree trunks, rips them from the ground canopy, trunk, roots and all), leveling hills large and small, filling in gullies, ravines and valleys, obliterating the diversity, complexity and organization of those forests, wet lands, and other natural settings which otherwise limit pathogenic transmission, qualitatively increasing the chances of exposing, acquiring and spreading a new pathogen.

    While a abruptly changing climate plays a role in the emergence of pandemic disease, it is the movement of capital which, driving the change in climate itself, plays the outsized role in not the emergence but the spread of pandemic disease. Biologically congealed socio-historically formed immunities, on the other hand, play little or no role in deciding who is subject to such disease (recall that by virological definition pandemic disease is novel, not previously encountered), and it again the movement of capital which is decisive here.

    In conclusion, I offer the following:
    (a) Using chronicles, diaries and travelers’ accounts, Charles C. Manning (!493: Uncovering the World Columbus Created, passim) shows that several attempts to populate Hispaniola (today, Haiti and Santo Domingo) by Columbus and his followers failed because those Spanish northerners to a man succumbed to malaria (or a malaria-like disease), which a tropic native people had long developed immunities to. In light of this, it might be worth noting,
    (b) Richard Manning (Against the Grain: How Agriculture has Hijacked Civilization, 40) exhibits the flip side of this situation: I shall cite at length: “As with many inherited diseases, the occurrence of sickle-cell anemia varies by ethnic group, but it is particularly common in those from Africa… what we regard as a disease is an adaptation… Sickle-cell anemia confers resistance to malaria, which is to say, if one lives in an area infested with malaria, it an advantage, not a disease; it is an aid to living and reproducing and passing on that gene for the condition… the results of analysis of human DNA and of the gene for sickle-cell anemia [indicate the] gene variant common in Africa arose roughly eight thousand years ago, and some four thousand years ago in the case of a second version of the gene common among peoples of the Mediterranean, India, and North Africa. This revelation came as something of a shock for people who thought malaria to be a more ancient disease. Its origins coincide nicely with those of agriculture, which… is no accident. The disturbance – clearing tropical forests first in Africa, and later in those other regions – created precisely the sort of conditions in which mosquitoes thrive. Thus, malaria is an agricultural disease.”
    (c) Robert G. Wallace, et al (“Did Ebola emerge in West Africa by a policy-driven phase change in agroecology?” International Journal of Health Services, 46/1. January 2016),* demonstrates that IMF neoliberal structural adjustment policy as a condition for development loans led to the collapse of public sector infrastructure (especially healthcare). The IMF (and World Bank) further facilitated the entry of large logging firms (to clear-cut forests for great agribusiness capitals aiming at palm monocultural agriculture) and mining companies (digging for cobalt, nickel and other ores) entailing the expropriation of small holders and sedentary foragers. West African agroecology and forest epizoology were thus transformed creating a novel environment well suited to fruit-eating bats (among other species) which are the central reservoir of Ebola in conditions in which public healthcare infrastructure had been dismantled. The results are well-known.


  2. Pingback: The COVID-19 is the Titanic of 21st Century Epidemics….so far – The Iconic Epidemic

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